Every time I want to setup public key authentication over SSH I use this simplest guide. Today, I decided to share it.
Create a key pair on local machine:
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/dima/.ssh/id_rsa):
It will ask you for a passphrase. Enter a sequence of any characters to protect the key.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): y0urp@$$phr@se
Enter same passphrase again: y0urp@$$phr@se
Check if the public/private rsa key pair exists:
$ ls ~/.ssh/*rsa*
id_rsa - the private rsa key. which must never be made available to anyone
id_rsa.pub - the public rsa key, which can be distributed to other computers
Copy your public key to the remote server:
sftp> mkdir .ssh
sftp> put .ssh/id_rsa.pub .ssh/authorized_keys2
Now you can connect via SSH to your remote server:
ssh -v your.remote.server.net